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Thyroid

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the base of your neck. It releases hormones that control metabolism—the way your body uses energy. The thyroid's hormones regulate vital body functions, including:
Breathing
Heart rate
Central and peripheral nervous systems
Body weight
Muscle strength
Menstrual cycles
Body temperature
Cholesterol levels
Much more!
 
The thyroid gland is about 2-inches long and lies in front of your throat below the prominence of thyroid cartilage sometimes called the Adam's apple. The thyroid has two sides called lobes that lie on either side of your windpipe, and is usually connected by a strip of thyroid tissue known as an isthmus. 
How does the Thyroid Gland Works
The thyroid is part of the endocrine system, which is made up of glands that produce, store, and release hormones into the bloodstream so the hormones can reach the body's cells. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the foods you eat to make two main hormones:
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Thyroxine (T4)
 
It is important that T3 and T4 levels are neither too high nor too low. Two glands in the brain—the hypothalamus and the pituitary communicate to maintain T3 and T4 balance.
The hypothalamus produces TSH Releasing Hormone (TRH) that signals the pituitary to tell the thyroid gland to produce more or less of T3 and T4 by either increasing or decreasing the release of a hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).
When T3 and T4 levels are low in the blood, the pituitary gland releases more TSH to tell the thyroid gland to produce more thyroid hormones.
If T3 and T4 levels are high, the pituitary gland releases less TSH to the thyroid gland to slow production of these hormones.
Why You Need a Thyroid Gland
T3 and T4 travel in your bloodstream to reach almost every cell in the body. The hormones regulate the speed with which the cells/metabolism work. For example, T3 and T4 regulate your heart rate and how fast your intestines process food. So if T3 and T4 levels are low, your heart rate may be slower than normal, and you may have constipation/weight gain. If T3 and T4 levels are high, you may have a rapid heart rate and diarrhea/weight loss.
 
Thyroid Gland Disorders are usually classified as:

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It is the most common thyroid disorder.

How can hypothyroidism affect your health ?

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Young Hypothyroid man with Dull Facial Look & Facial Puffiness(Before Treatment)

 
 
 
 
What is Hypothyroidism?
Hypothyroidism means you have too little thyroid hormone ( T3 & T4 ).
Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder.
 It occurs more often in women , and tends to run in families.
 
What causes Hypothyroidism?
In adults, Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of
hypothyroidism. In this condition, your immune system attacks and
damages your thyroid, so it can’t make enough thyroid hormone.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hypothyroidism can also be present from birth if the thyroid gland does not develop properly.
 
How is Hypothyroidism diagnosed?
Blood tests can measure your levels of thyroid-stimulating
hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (T4).
You have hypothyroidism when you have low T4, and high TSH levels in
your blood.
 
How is Hypothyroidism treated?
People who have hypothyroidism must take a pill containing synthetic thyroid hormone every day
 to replace the thyroid hormone they lack.
Hypothyroidism is a lifelong condition, but taking thyroid hormone pills every day can prevent related health problems.
 
Problems if not treated
In adults, untreated hypothyroidism leads to poor mental and physical performance. 
It also can cause high blood cholesterol levels that can lead to heart disease. 
A life-threatening condition called myxedema coma can develop if severe hypothyroidism is left untreated.
 
Untreated hypothyroidism in the pregnant mother may affect the baby’s growth and brain development.
 
 If not treated promptly, a child with hypothyroidism could have mental retardation or fail to grow normally.

Hyperthyroidism

How can hyperthyroidism affect your health?
 

 What is hyperthyroidism?

In Hyperthyroidism the thyroid gland is overactive and produces too much thyroid hormone (T3 & T4).
 
What causes hyperthyroidism?
Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.
 
In Graves Disease the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, causing it to enlarge and make too much thyroid hormone(T3 & T4).
It is chronic (long-term) and typically runs in families with a history of thyroid disease.
Less common causes of hyperthyroidism include
• Thyroid nodules: Lumps 
• Subacute thyroiditis: A painful inflammation of the thyroid typically caused by a virus
• Lymphocytic thyroiditis: A painless inflammation caused by lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell)
• Postpartum thyroiditis: Thyroiditis that develops shortly after pregnancy
 
How can hyperthyroidism affect your health?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
What is hyperthyroidism?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In Hyperthyroidism the thyroid gland is overactive and produces too much thyroid hormone (T3 & T4).
 
What causes hyperthyroidism?
Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In Graves Disease the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, causing it to enlarge and make too much thyroid hormone(T3 & T4).
It is chronic (long-term) and typically runs in families with a history of thyroid disease.
Less common causes of hyperthyroidism include
• Thyroid nodules: Lumps 
• Subacute thyroiditis: A painful inflammation of the thyroid typically caused by a virus
• Lymphocytic thyroiditis: A painless inflammation caused by lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell)
• Postpartum thyroiditis: Thyroiditis that develops shortly after pregnancy
 
How is hyperthyroidism diagnosed?
 Your doctor will perform a physical examination and order blood tests to measure your hormone levels.
You have hyperthyroidism when the levels of T4 and T3 are higher than normal and the level
 of TSH is lower than normal.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Your doctor may also take a picture of your thyroid (a thyroid scan) to see its shape and size
 
How is hyperthyroidism treated?
• Antithyroid medications. These drugs lower the amount of hormone the thyroid gland makes. 
• Beta blockers can control many symptoms
• Radioactive iodine. 
• Surgery. Surgical removal of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy).
 
Problems if not treated
If left untreated, hyperthyroidism can lead to :
  • Severe weakness, Weight loss , Heart failure or Brittle bones (osteoporosis). 
Pregnant women with uncontrolled Graves’ disease are at greater risk of miscarriage, premature
birth, and having a baby with low birth 

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